Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Employee Motivation From Performance Measurement And Compensation System Management Essay Essay Example
Employee Motivation From Performance Measurement And Compensation System Management Essay Essay Employees are an indispensable portion of any organisation, and they should be ever motivated in order to acquire the best consequences out of them. In the article research was conducted of 18months among 272 employees which proved that positive emotion on occupation leads to work accomplishment, occupation enrichment along with higher quality of societal context which comes from more support from supervisors and coworkers. Although the research did non turn out that positive attitude of employees lead to occupation enrichment. The article tells that elements of research have changed in past few old ages. Rather than measuring employee response towards assorted facets of work function, accent has shifted towards how societal context form attitude. This has led to wider array of constructs such as positive and negative consequence. Previously occupation satisfaction was being used to mensurate absenteeism, turnover and public presentation now emotion influence wider organisational res ults along with employee s personal result. The writer proposes that employees who feel and are exposing positive emotion on their occupation will finally see positive results in their work functions. On occupation satisfaction a batch of research has been carried on but non adequate clip has been dedicated to positive emotions. The research besides propose that alternatively of utilizing wide constructs like occupation engagement as organisational designation, it is more utile to mensurate specific emotions that employees observe or experience at work like joy, pride exhilaration. Stearns and Stearns ( 1986 ) Hagiographas showed that control of choler and experience may convey direct effects on work results. ( BARRY M.STAW, 1994 ) We will write a custom essay sample on Employee Motivation From Performance Measurement And Compensation System Management Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Employee Motivation From Performance Measurement And Compensation System Management Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Employee Motivation From Performance Measurement And Compensation System Management Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Employee s motive farther comes from public presentation measuring and compensation system. The article negotiations about the employee motive after taking assorted trials to turn out that how effectual it is to give compensations. Survey consequences demonstrated a positive relationship between compensation system and extrinsic motive, where as intrinsic motive is effected by publicity chances. Further the compensation system besides affect other indexs of motive like work satisfaction and turnover purpose. In many schools of idea associating to both psychological economic literature have made incentive compensation the nucleus portion of survey. From the hunt carried out there was no mark of grounds that is negative in relationship among pecuniary compensation and intrinsic motive. Though, intrinsic motive is influenced by occupation related issues like occupation enrichment. Whereas, the promotional chances are proven to help in increasing the chance of agreeable future undertakings. The feeling of being suitably treated by a company will take to just behaviour in return. Employees will set about undertaking because they feel obliged to return the sort intervention they have received, instead than the possibility of possible danger of this behaviour on future degrees of compensation. Company believes that directors have tool to separate among assorted variables that build compensation system. It is besides said that extrinsic motive can be reached by bettering the basicss of both pecu niary compensation system and promotional chances. Promotions have been shown to hold positive relationship with motive. This is the ground why it is said to be an of import managerial tool, for addition in the degree of motive. If any company manage good perceived compensation system besides has good consequence on major indexs of motive like work satisfaction and turnover. Therefore we can reason by stating that compensation system can be of great importance for directors to increase motive and single public presentation. Wage construction features and their consequent inducement besides effects through empirical observation. In conformity to employee study and forces records, grounds was provided in which rewards are attached to occupations and publicities play a cardinal function as pay determiner. ( Macro Van Harpen, 2003 ) In the article peculiar company was analyzed on history of their pay construction and the incentive effects of publicities. It was seen that rewards are attached to occupations and non to employees. About 25 % of life-time pay alterations are a direct or an indirect consequence of publicities. As we move on we happen to see that incentive consequence of wagess can be used to maneuver on internal labour markets can besides hold managerial impact. Previously, we said that incentive compensation is related to extrinsic motive, but in this article it showed that it along with extrinsic motive is besides related to intrinsic motive. One or two old ages after publicity, employees will be holding a comparatively high degree of intrinsic motive, which will finally decrease over clip. On the other manus inducements can bee seen as an option for publicities, as publicity are related to extrinsic motive. Findingss indicated in the article that strong actuating potency of publicities, both per s e and extrinsically. Restrictions are besides mentioned in respect to these findings, which are that the beginning of information which has been provided was given by the company and secondly that the outlook of publicity is measured subjectively merely. And in conclusion, motive is said to be caused by sensed outlooks of publicities despite whether this outlooks falls right or non. ( Kees Cools, 2004 ) In another article research from entrepreneurship, occupational pick, and employee engagement literature was seen to explicate what ere the factors that encouraged engagement in new corporate ventures. What is found was employee s basic determination to take part in any corporate venture is depended on the expected public-service corporation of the undertaking s incentive bundle. The consequences that were shown declared venture features, forces motive, and interactions effects should all be considered in planing any corporate ventures. Deductions in regard to this are related to the director, who should depend on the beginning of motive, different incentive bundle elements need to be emphasized. As for those employees who are said to hold extrinsic motive net income sharing is a factor that will give in strong positive impact. Whereas, employees with lower intrinsic motive, greater occupation hazard has a stronger negative impact. These two tradeoffs are necessary for directors to m aintain in head when sing optimum profit-sharing fillip packager for new venture. ( Todd Saxton, 2009 ) Another point under this subject through empirical observation examines the determiners and public presentation effects of centrality prejudice and lenience prejudice. Consequences in this peculiar article showed that directors respond to their ain inducements and penchants when measuring public presentation. When it comes to strong employee-manager relationship it positively affect centrality prejudice and lenience prejudice. Evidence shows that public presentation rating prejudices affects are non merely on current public presentation, but besides on the hereafter employee inducements. Manager s public presentation rating prejudices are non needfully linked to compensation undertaking. Although, centrality prejudice negatively is set uping the public presentation betterment whereas the grounds says nil clearly sing the lenience prejudice and public presentation. Relatively, the lenience prejudice is positively associated with future public presentation, which is reliable on behavio ural statement that prejudice can better looking equality and in bend employee motive. Inaccuracy of evaluation that is caused by directors rating prejudices is perceived to be one of the chief jobs which introduced subjectiveness into any compensation contract. However empirical surveies analyzing the effects of colored public presentation evaluations are non great in figure. Companies are more interested in the effectivity of performance-based compensation contracts in able to increase employees future public presentation, but non in the truth of public presentation evaluation. To look into how other concerns in combination to biased evaluation, act upon the effectivity of the wages of compensation that will lend vastly. ( Jasmijn.C.Bol, 2010 ) Herzberg is known as the male parent of occupation enrichment for employee s motive. He claimed that occupation satisfaction which is one nucleus portion in employee motive is non the antonym of occupation dissatisfaction. Alternatively the opposite if there is any of occupation satisfaction is no occupation satisfaction at all. If an employee is said to be good satisfied with his occupation he will finally be keener and hence more motivated towards his occupation. Therefore all the organisations should give thorough survey in conformity to do occupations more pulling to employees. And to keep employee motive is non hard, if you are traveling to maintain yourself into employees place intending you have to look at their demands in the same mode as directors consider their ain. ( Ed Zimmer, 1998 ) The manner CEO performs or his leading manner if frequently debated, since they are known to hold multiple degree of effects on all his employees. CEO have an upper direction through which they implement both direct and indirect effects. Since the CEO is a the individual with the vision who will be responsible for all the determinations taken by the house. This article talks about how two types of CEO work and how effectual their determinations are towards his/employees. These two types of CEO are 1s who own the company and other is professional CEO. The intent is to happen which leading manner has an immediate consequence toward the employees or subsidiaries of a company. ( Nancy Papalexandris, 2009 ) Work motive still lacks in many countries and hence, in order to hold a clear image one needs to analyze from new position. One can distinguish among witting and subconscious motive as that will assist in placing the demands of workers. Second, to hold survey of different types of relationships that is between general and specific motive. Third, acknowledge the function of human actions when explicating theories. If these factors are taken attention of work motive can accomplish new way. It is by all agencies besides necessary to analyze clip position, as to how employees and directors incorporate short term versus long term outcomes. This issue is of import at both organisational and single degree. Short tally is decidedly of import for the house to last otherwise there is no long term at all, but the focal point should non wholly be upon today one demand to see hereafter as good and in making so should see one s occupation accomplishments. How the organisation leaders prioritize en ds and values is non easy, as to accomplish one end they have to prorogue the other end. Employees should ever be updated of company s determination, in order to accomplish best results. ( Edwin A. Locke, 2004 ) The term motive is non ever clearly defined, at times it may mention as occupation satisfaction and other times as motive to execute, and satisfaction against pick, attempt and continuity are non similar phenomenon. Since they might non ever have same causes or effects, or at times may non impact one another. The prostration to specify footings in a clear and yet valid manner stifle cognitive lucidity hence, development in the field of work motive. There is no bound as to the geographic expedition of new thoughts in motive of workers and the more the directors or organisation is able to place the more likely they are in accomplishing their ends. Surveies besides prove that low rewards is non the factor for employees to experience sorry for, and a higher wage will convey them in high liquors. Job factors increase motive but in its absence it will non take to occupation dissatisfaction. Job factors besides known as satisfiers may include accomplishment, acknowledgment, and growing. On the contrary, hygiene factors are those that aid in cut downing dissatisfaction among employees, these factors include supervising, working conditions and security of occupation. So organisation should seek to intermix both of these factors at their best in order to accomplish the ends efficaciously. Further, employees should be rewarded harmonizing to employee s part in carry throughing their needed undertakings. There are frequently issues in this wages system as employee might see him or herself eligible to accomplishing wages, but the director is non ready to honor, at such state of affairss the employee might acquire de-motivated towards work and frequently his negative emotions arise as against his or her occupation. As motive is said to depend on how much employee wants something and how much they think that they will acquire. Further employees are by and large motivated to accomplish those ends which they have set together with their directors, as in leting them to take part will do them more energetic in able to accomplish those ends and this will do them experience of import for the organisation. Problems frequently arise at a point where cognition or information demands to be transferred among squads. Organizations can enable assorted sorts of motive and to hold assortment in the capacity to bring forth and reassign silent cognition. Since the cognition coevals and transportation are indispensable tool for organisation s competitory advantage. Intrinsic motive in indispensable for houses as discussed before every bit good, it has great many advantages in those countries where monetary value and markets play their function. The cognition transportation can non be straight linked to any one person. Directors can detect the cognition coevals and the transportation in footings of the end product that is generated, whereas explicit cognition is tradable. Directors are able to detect that how good employees with single cognition have performed and thereby they can honor employees consequently. Organizations that stress engagement and personal relationship as overlapping squads are needed. Finally houses are better able to pull off motive instead than markets. ( Bruno S.FREY, 2000 ) Executives are known as the back bone of any organisations, as they are the 1s who manage concern, take determination, and are likely the 1s who tend to better the place of their organisation. So, they should be given interest in the company in order to execute at their best towards those peculiar tasks/actions which they believe will smooth net incomes. The survey that was conducted in an organisation showed that executives should be given portion of the net income which company probably earns. This claim is uncontested, because most executives are known to be risk averse when it comes to portions of house which they manage. Further, the direction tends to portion net incomes with their employees in order to minimise losingss which arise due to negligence at work. When of all time there is higher managerial ownership we will see that more hazard is passed to employees, who will so be more careful and motivated during their occupation as they will see themselves as an of import porti on of the organisation. When direction is said to have the house, variableness in option compensation is greater. Naturally when employees do nt hold hazard involved in the house, intending that when they are to have their fixed wage they are non risk averse, whereas if they are given ownership in that context they will be more careful and more involved in the house. ( Ye Cai, 2010 )
Sunday, November 24, 2019
A winning pitch A winning pitch A guest blog on the Law Society Gazettes website says that writing pitches is not something that lawyers can afford to skate over. The article, Pitch writing: because its worth it, was contributed by Rob Ashton, Emphasis chief executive. In it, he looks at why far from being a waste of otherwise billable hours a carefully put together and tailored pitch is actually a sound investment in your firm. Much like death and taxes, for lawyers, pitch-writing is an inevitable part of life. And in todays financial climate more than ever, the pitch can make or break a deal. It can do the same for your firms reputation. Find out exactly why by reading the blog in full.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Online Video Marketing - Essay Example has also been mentioned in the ad, thirdly there are clear instructions about personalising the delivery and in what all ways, fourthly, the name of the product (which is chocolate wedding favors) is repeatedly used in the advertisement. However, one of the major shortcomings of this video is that nothing exciting or luring is happening in the ad. There is a same boring background used all throughout the ad with a fixed image usage. Moreover, having a male voice is not a very good idea, especially when it sounded more robotic. Generally female voice is best suited in advertisements. There was recurrent use of messages throughout the video which were the written format of whatever was spoken; this made the video look very annoying and it made me feel as if I was sitting in a class and a lecture was taking place. 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YZFng1ngyeE- The idea of this video is very innovative. Keeping in mind that the most number of orders are placed by men for their female counterparts, the ad has been specifically designed to lure them. It has a title track which runs throughout and has been intelligently chosen to represent the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. Also there is an excellent use of still images with videos which makes it all very interesting. However, one of the major setbacks is that the advertisement looks like a video of a love song with hints about publicity of chocolates. There is little to no use of information on the product and hardly once or twice does such information occur on the screen. Basically the product and services are not advertised properly. 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lSaZADwgiCk- The video featured in this link presents an interesting aspect to the idea of video advertisement. Unlike other video ads, this one focuses on different people from different genres who have varied tastes when it comes to chocolates. Via these people the video tries to lure people into buying chocolates by presenting the reasons and the people
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Things which are Important in Our Lives - Essay Example The ways that things make our lives more comfortable are countless. From the moment we wake up until we sleep, things are there make our lives easier. We sleep on a thing called the bed and wakes up with the alarm of another thing called alarm clock. Our breakfast would not have been prepared if not the convenience of cooking things in the kitchen. When we prepare ourselves either for school or work, things are again present for us. We dress in clothes appropriate for us and go to school or work in another form of thing which is a car. Even our place of work school is filled with things. In school, computers make studying easier especially the internet. Our daily lives are basically filled with things to make it convenient for us. Things also enable us to do a lot of things which otherwise would have been difficult to do without those things. I can concretely cite the example of a computer and internet without which studying and doing research would have been very difficult. If I have to do a term paper, I will have to physically go to the library and scour through the catalogs before finding the books and magazine that I need for research. After finding those materials that I need, I have to borrow them physically or copy the text if I am not allowed to bring the books at home. I would have to laboriously go all through them which will take a lot of time and effort. And even writing the report would require a great deal of effort because I have to manually type them. The thing called computer and internet releases me from those burdens and allow me to study better. I can scour through books and journals and other articles right in the comfort of my home. This is faster and more convenient. The information I c an find using the computer and the internet in minutes may take me hours if I will do it physically in the library.Ã
Sunday, November 17, 2019
New loci for genetic resistance to malaria in humans - Essay Example The pathogenic species belonging to this genus include P. ovale, P. Malariae, P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. Knowlesi. The severe form of the condition is the one caused by P. falcipurum which is prevalent in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Some overlapping clinical syndromes that indicates the severe form includes severe anaemia (SA) and cerebral malaria (CM) (World Health Organisation, 2000). The essay below refers to GWAS approach to develop the strategies applied in the development of control for infectious diseases in humans. According to Kwiatkowski (2005), the disease has been identified as a potent type in the human population. This is because genetic traits such as sickle cell variants have been proven to protect people from malaria. Some highly variant genes offer resistance to malaria e.g. sickle cell haemoglobin variant (Hb-S) and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). This affirms that malaria resistance among humans is genetic (Hedrick, 2011). The response to the malarial p arasite of the human body varies i.e. some people may succumb upon infection while others may survive. This variation is caused by genetic factors (Mackinnon et al., 2005). The prevalence of the disease has led to an increase in mutation in the human body to counter the negative effects of the disease. Snow et al., (2005) alludes that the malaria form caused by P. falcipurum in endemic areas has led to a strong selective pressure among the human population. ... Studies on the genetic make-up of the human body have been enhanced by construction of a complete human genome. Enhanced genomic studies have been conducted globally to understand the variant traits of diseases and conditions such as diabetes and/or malaria. The genome wide studies include studies related to genome linkage and association. Genome-wide association studies are involved in the identification of the pathways influencing malaria, especially the severe form of malaria. Human chromosome 10 (10p15.3-14) and chromosome 13 (13q) have been identified by Timmann et al. (2012) to possess pronounced linkages to the severe malaria forms. Genome-wide association studies links individuals with common genetic variants to a host of diseases and traits. Hirschorn and Daly (2005) deduce that the studies are characterised by a survey across the genome sets of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) for most of the common genetic variation that causes diseases or exposes an individual to dise ase vulnerability. Additionally, these studies contribute in the identification of the variants contributing to the disease on focus. The genome-wide analysis identifies the factors that influence health and disease. Contrary to the linkage studies where markers associated with the genome must segregate with diseases in families, the GWAS studies focuses on the analysis of genome for possible genetic variants causing the disease (Hirschorn and Daly, 2005). Timmann et al., (2012) asserts that resistance to malaria has not been comprehensively established. The GWAS studies are appropriate for identifying the variants for the genetic resistance in the body. The GWAS studies involve the application of
Friday, November 15, 2019
Compliance of Nurses with personal protective equipment Introduction The identification of clients with infectious diseases through the clinical and laboratory assessment is Possible, but not always be effective. Because the most of infectious diseases such as AIDS, hepatitis and other, the Microorganisms needs to the incubation period before appearance the signs and symptoms of disease on the clients, however, the probability of transmission of infection are possible in these is period. Therefore, any patient should be regarded as a potential source of infection (Hinkin and Gammon, 2008). Use of personal protective equipment is very important to prevent infectious pathogens transmitted from patient to nurse and the versa is true. Furthermore, correctly select and use of personal protective equipment is very effective to prevent transmission of infection, in addition to reduce the risks of exposure for infectious agents (Hon et al 2008). However, the health environment filled with hazards and pathogens because of that nurses should be use effective ba rrier equipment to break down any probability to contamination by infectious agent (Hinkin and Gammon, 2008). The personal protective equipments in all contents aprons, gloves, gowns, eye protection (goggles, glasses), caps, laboratory coats, resuscitation bags and face shields/mask all of this and other, are use frequently in general care settings as very important part of standard precaution (Clark et al 2002; Pratt et al 2007). The standard precautions developed gradually from the universal precautions (Hinkin and Gammon, 2008), which began as prevention agent to prevent transmission of blood borne pathogens to healthcare workers (Wilson 2001). Standard precautions are evidence-based guidance designed to reduce incidence of healthcare associated infection and transmission of infections in healthcare environment (Pellow et al. 2004). Also all intervention and precautions must be applied by all healthcare workers to provide professional care and safety to all health worker and patients in health environment (Pratt et al. 2007). The Standard precautions it aim to prevent transmission of infection or at least reduce probability of transmission any infected pathogens to the lowest level between nurses and patients , also to protect the patients and healthcare workers at the same time by use standardized precautions such as personal protective equipments (Cullen et al, 2006). Damani (2003) did clarify the standard infection precautions guideline, health worker education are playing effective role to minimize major problems in the UK such as the antibiotic resistant and health care associated infections. Furthermore, the personal protective equipments as the important part of standard precautions and playing very effective role to prevent incident of healthcare associated infections, it was identified as one of the most common complications in the health care environment, recently which affects on approximately 10% of clients admitted to hospitals worldwide (Filetoth 2003), around 4-10% between hospitals in the developed countries (Nazarko 2008). Also the rate varies from 5-15% in the developing countries (Jarvis 2007). Globally, healthcare associated infections infect a patient every two minutes and the world loses one patient every two hours because of healthcare associated infections leading to non-compliance the healthcare workers with personal protective equipments use and anther standard precautions (Chief Medical Officers Report 2006). For instance, harbarth et al (2001) cleared the rate of hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers nearly 34%, and Golan et al (2006) cleared the compliance for hand hygiene before provide care nearly 10% and 36% after provide care. Therefore, some studies suggest that the use of MMS, images, videos and online education is very effective to education the health care workers and increased level of compliance and application of personal protective equipments during practice (Pullen 2006), such as Hon et al (2008) reported the rate of hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers post provide course when wear the personal protective equipment nearly 87% and 68% when taking off the personal protective equipments. The main infectious occupational risks in the healthcare environment such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Also There are some nurses more risk to transmit or received infection for or from patient such as staff nurses in surgical or operations department, because of he or she have high chances to direct contact with blood of patient and make many of specific procedures(Ganczak and Szych, 2007). Doebbeling et al (2003) did clarify the occupational blood exposure occurred frequently among the healthcare workers , also as stated in his study one-fourth to one-third of the respondents had injured by percutaneous blood exposure in the previous three months. Specifically, more than one-third of nursing had exposure more than one time to mucocutaneous blood in the previous three months. Also the exposure and injury rates to infection in health environment is vary differ according to the occupation, which depending on several factors such as the average of time spent in provide care for patient or treated of specimens, use of standard precautions during provide care, frequency use of certain devices and mostly never recapping needles. Gershon et al (1995) clarify the compliance rates among healthcare workers related for the eleven items of personal protective equipments, 97% compliance rate for gloves ; 95% for disposal of sharps; and also the compliance rate is low for others items such as 62% for wearing protective outer clothing and 63% for wearing eye protection. Therefore, Gershon et al find strongly relationship between the compliances of healthcare workers and several key factors such as perception of risk; and training on use the standard precautions as the personal protective equipments. Research questions and aims: What is the level of compliance of nursing with Personal protective equipments use? The aim for this question is to evaluate the level of compliance with Personal protective equipments use among Jordanian nurses during provides care for patients. Also to identify the level of compliance for each tool of personal protective equipments. What are the significant factors that lead to non-compliance with personal protection equipments use among Jordanian nurses during provides care? The aim for this question is to identify the significant factors that lead to non-compliance with personal protective equipments use during provides nursing care for patients. Almost all nursing interventions need to use personal protective equipment frequently during provide care for patients and especially when applying sterilizes nursing procedures for patients, Because of that this study aims to: 1-to identify mainly significant factors that led to non-compliance with personal protection equipment among Jordanian nurses during provides care. 2- To evaluate the level of compliance with Personal protective equipments use among Jordanian nurses during provides care for patients. 3- To enhance the safety for patients and caregivers in hospital in the same time. 4- To explore the gaps between knowledge and practice relater to personal protective equipments among Jordanian nursing. 5- To enhance apply the standard precautions guideline for personal protective equipments among nursing. 6- To prevent transmission of infection between the nurses and patients, also to minimise incident some of major problem in healthcare environments such as health care associated infection and antibiotic resistant. 7- To provide appropriate solutions and suggestions for these is factors. Rational of the methodology: This study was proposed to evaluate the level of compliance with Personal protective equipments use and identify the level of compliance for each tool among Jordanian nurses during provides care for patients. Also to explore the significant factors that leads to non-compliance with personal protection equipments use. However, for the above proposed research quantitative design shall be used. Quantitative researchers do not look to confirm a hypothesis, but looking forward to reject the hypothesis through the analysis of data and therefore development of statements through clarify of causal relationships (Phillips and Burbules, 2000). Moreover quantitative researches often start with a hypothesis related to phenomena to be tested and after the data are collected and analyses, support this is hypothesis or refute by clarify the relationship between the variables (Holt 2009). Furthermore, quantitative research is often used as a method trying to display causal relationships under controlled or standardized condition (Casebeer and Verhoef, 1997). Quantitative research is described as the numerical representation and processing of observations and data for the purpose of describing and explain phenomena and facts that those observations reflect. On the other hand the qualitative research is defined as the non-numerical representation and analysis of observations and data; for the purpose of determining underlying meanings and discovering the patterns of relationships (Babbie 1992). As a result the quantitative research is apply deductive approach (where data are especially collected for the purpose of hypotheses, analysis and testing ideas) rather than the qualitative research is apply inductive approach (develop the generalizations and ideas Through the data ) (Meadows 2003). Quantitative research is identified the science as objective fact or truth, different from quantitative research is identified the science depending on previous experience and thus subjectivity determined. Furthermore, quantitative research method is use numerical estimates and statistical analysis from a generalization sample related to a larger number of populations true (Casebeer and Verhoef, 1997). And thus the quantitative research involves experiments and surveys, where statistics and data are collected by using standardized methods such as structured interviews and questionnaires (Meadows 2003). On the other hand the qualitative research method is use narrative description and continual comparisons, are more often use to understand the specific sample or situations being studied (Casebeer and Verhoef, 1997). Quantitative research is an effective and necessary part of healthcare services researches; the most example of this is the controlled randomized experiment research, with its importance on experimentation and large size of sample. However, quantitative researches cover a wide broader spectrum of activity, which can contain some of small-scale descriptive studies, through to more specialization and complication studies by detect and explore the relationships between variables (Meadows 2003). Quantitative research used many of research designs for example experiments or surveys and correlational studies (Holt 2009). Also Robson (2002) classified the quantitative research to several types under the headings experimental design, quasi-experimental design and non-experimental design; however these designs sometimes are similar in several respects such as patterns of group behaviour, properties and tendencies. But meadows in (2003) classified the quantitative research strategies to two designs experimental and non-experimental designs. Also the experimental designs are characterized by the introduction or management of some variable for example randomized control trials (RCT) (Lanoe 2007). But in the non experimental designs the data are get from existing groups, for example (relational design) to consider at the relationship between a number of variables such as the scores on a pain or depression scale and age; (descriptive design) to identify the frequency and type of probl em in a specific group; (analytical design) to determination why a specific group is affected although the another is not (Meadows 2003). The qualitative studies are more complicated for generalization than the quantitative studies and more controversial. Therefore, Researchers in quantitative research rarely worry for generalizability issue. Also the goal of most qualitative studies is to present a rich of study, contextualized and considerate of human experience through the concentrated study of particular cases (Polit and Beck, 2010). Related to my aim from this is study the quantitative design is more appropriate than qualitative design. However, the designs of quantitative research are serves the proposed aims for these is study. In addition this study when looking forward to identify the relationship between the nursing compliance and personal protective equipments, identify frequency of non-compliance of nursing for the personal protective equipments and to determine which personal protective equipments more compliance and another are less compliance. And also after analyse the data will be able to identify the significant factors that lead to non-compliance with personal protective equipments use among the nursing. it was consider that the literature review could put in the picture the select of methodology and method for this study and also according to the objectives and aims of this study; in addition, this study looking forward to analysis of collected data from a largest size of sample from nurses through survey design. Thus quantitative design approach would be the most excellent approach to achieve my aims and objectives. Research methodologies: Qualitative methods The most three data collection methods common in qualitative research are interview participant observation and focus group discussions. Firstly, participant observation method the data collection in this method when the researcher watching interactions and acts of participants in a natural situation. Also perhaps the researcher has a role or task in the observation site in addition for his observation role (Greenhalgh and Taylor, 1997). Thus involve on the researcher use some of data collection techniques for example observation, interviewing and self-analysis and reflection. In addition the participant observation is aim to create a completely and specifically description of social interaction in a natural situation (Astin and Long, 2009). Also the researcher has more control on the participants especially about credibility issue and more aware about the less tangible aspects for example apathy and good will. But the participant observation the researcher might have complexity to making observe if involved in the location and recording data especially if working in busy situation such as hospital, the researcher los t the accuracy of observation if the participants might see the researcher make spying or threat (Lanoe 2007). In addition the participant observation techniques put the researcher under some particular pressure and ethical challenges (Astin and Long, 2009). Secondly, interview method is defined as the interaction and effective conversation between the researcher and participant and usually is in the form face-to-face in a natural location such as participants home or workplace (Astin and Long, 2009). Moreover the interview can give the interviewee and researcher more flexibility to express opinions, views and make dissection. But the researchers need to have communication skills of interview; Long time to collect data; difficulty in recording, analysing and coding the information; and the interviews non-confidential are not anonymous (Lanoe 2007). Quantitative methods: The most common methods to collect data in quantitative researches is the survey, which approximately always uses questionnaires, structured interviews (face-to-face or telephone), or tests and scales (Meadows 2003). Firstly, structured interview method the researcher an interviewer poses his questions exactly the same question in the same way and order on the respondent and also gives the opportunity for the researcher to filling out the answers of questionnaire (Holt 2009). But the researcher will be exposed to the same problems that face in any interview such as need to have communication skills of interview, long time to collect data and analysis, in addition difficulty to find appropriate place and time of interview especially with nurses are working in hospital (Lanoe 2007). Secondly, it was consider that the literature review could put in the picture the select of method for this study. Also and according to the objectives and aims of this study, questionnaires method approach would be the best approach to achieve the objectives and aims of this study. Questionnaires are a most method of data collection in quantitative design, also characterized mostly as relatively inexpensive; can be cover large numbers of sample by given to several participant at the same time; allow the participant a degree of privacy and answered anonymously, Therefore the participants might be more truthful. However, some famous questionnaires dont require users to get a licence from the author for use (Holt 2009). Also the questionnaires method characterized by more easier to analyse and code of data and. In addition more effectively for time to respondents and researchers especially if the respondent as the nurses working in busy area (Lanoe 2007). Nieswiadomy (2008) summarized the importance of questionnaire method by ability to provide good accurate data on population, using relatively small size of samples. In addition the advantage of questionnaire researcher can obtained large amount of data, quickly and less cost. Although, the questionnaires method needs effort to preparation and perhaps time to test validity and reliability, also some persons do not like forms. Moreover, the most limitation of questionnaire is the type of information obtained (Nieswiadomy 2008), because of some respondents might be answer casually do not bothering about their answers or trying to provide the correct answer, although the researcher cannot ask the respondent to clarification their answers (Lanoe 2007). Literature review: The purpose of the literature review is to explore and clarify the recently study, knowledge, standardise precautions guideline and theory on the compliance of nurses with personal protective equipments use, in other hand to clarify the significant factors that lead to non-compliance for it among nurses. Moreover it was considered that the literature review would inform the select of most appropriate research design and method for this study. The literature search for this study which will be using computerized databases by Athens log-in: Medline, CINAHL, Ovid, SAGE, Cochrane Database and the Evidence-Based Medicine. In addition, specific online journals as in Science Direct journal, Medscape Nurses, Medpulse Journal, BioMed central articles, Journal of advanced Nursing, BMJ Journals. Furthermore, have been limited set for each data base: date range between1996-2010, related for nursing, full text articles and journals. To provide the recently studies, information and researchers on the compliances of nurses with personal protective equipments ; and to grow deeper in topic of this study more analytically and Informatics, in addition to devise the best methods used for the same of this study; read and analyse some of the used questionnaires, and perhaps use one of their. Additional reviewing included the WHO, NHS, Jordanian Ministry of Health, and Jordanian Nursing and Midwife Council. A manual search also undertaken by examining the reference list at the end of the articles found and those that were relevant were followed through. So as to get at the latest statistics and numerical and ratio analysis to benefit of their in this study, accordingly, building of some comparative studies and explore some of the causal relations between the personal protective equipment tools and the compliances of nursing and in addition to clarify the significant factors that led to non-compliances with personal protective equipments and support that by statistically rates. Also and one of literature review strategy is critically read and analyse for text books references about nursing research, standard precaution, personal protective equipment and nursing guideline. The key words used were Nursing Personal protective equipment, Standard precaution, Nursing safety, Qualitative and quantitative research, qualitative research, quantitative research, Nursing compliance, guideline, Jordanian nursing, Knowledge, practice, attitude According to the topic, formulated questions, objectives and aims of this study the literature review clarify the picture about select of methodology and method for this study and also after the literature review has been seen on some of the questionnaires used in the same study and how collected and what the questions that used in the questionnaires. In addition, identify the most significant factors effect on the compliances of healthcare workers with personal protective equipments use.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Unfortunately, I couldn't remember where I'd felt it before. Considering everything else that had been happening to me, the fact that I'd even recalled it at all was remarkable. My memories were a little scattered, but I did my best to sift through them, wondering where I had experienced that tickling in my brain. I received no answers, and pondering it all soon became as frustrating as coming up with an escape plan. And as more time passed, I realized I really did need an escape plan. The endorphin withdrawal was killing me, but I was thinking more and more clearly as the effects left my system. I was astonished at how out of it I'd let myself become. As soon as I'd allowed Dimitri to bite meÃ¢â¬ ¦ I'd fallen apart. I'd lost my higher reasoning. I'd lost my strength and skills. I'd become soft and silly and stupid. Well, not entirely. If I'd completely lost it, I'd be a Strigoi now. There was some comfort, at least, in knowing that even while high on bites, some part of me had still fought through and refused to succumb. Knowing I wasn't as entirely weak as I'd believed helped keep me going. It made it easier to ignore the yearning in my body, to distract myself with bad TV and eating all the food in the little refrigerator. I even stayed awake for a long time in the hopes of exhausting myself. It worked, and I crashed as soon as I hit the pillow, drifting into a dreamless sleep with no withdrawal effects. I was awakened later when a body slid into bed beside me. I opened my eyes and stared right into Dimitri's red ones. For the first time in days, I looked at him with fear, not love. I kept that off my face, though, and smiled at him. I reached out and touched his face. Ã¢â¬Å"You're back. I missed you.Ã¢â¬ He caught my hand and kissed my palm. Ã¢â¬Å"I had things to do.Ã¢â¬ The shadows shifted on his face, and I caught the tiniest glimpse of dried blood near his mouth. Grimacing, I rubbed it off with my finger. Ã¢â¬Å"So I see.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's the natural order, Rose. How are you feeling?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Better. ExceptÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ I looked away, conflicted again. The look in his eyes just then was more than simple curiosity. There was concern there-only a little-but it was there. Concern for me. And yet only a moment ago, I'd wiped blood from his face-blood from some poor person whose life had been snuffed out within the last few hours, most likely. Ã¢â¬Å"I was in Lissa's head,Ã¢â¬ I said at last. There was no harm in telling him this. Like Nathan, he knew she was at the Academy. Ã¢â¬Å"AndÃ¢â¬ ¦ I got pushed out.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Pushed out?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"YeahÃ¢â¬ ¦ I was seeing through her eyes like I usually do, and then some forceÃ¢â¬ ¦ I don't know, an invisible hand shoved me out. I've never felt anything like it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe it's a new spirit ability.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe. Except, I've been watching her regularly, and I've never seen her practice or even consider anything like that.Ã¢â¬ He shrugged slightly and put an arm around me. Ã¢â¬Å"Being awakened gives you better senses and accessibility to the world. But it doesn't make you omniscient. I don't know why that happened to you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Clearly not omniscient, or else Nathan wouldn't want information about her so badly. Why is that? Why are the Strigoi fixated on killing the royal lines? We know they've-you've-been doing it, but why? What does it matter? Isn't a victim a victim-especially when plenty of Strigoi used to be royal Moroi?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That requires a complicated answer. A large part of hunting Moroi royalty is fear. In your old world, royalty are held above all others. They get the best guardians, the best protection.Ã¢â¬ Yes, that was certainly true. Lissa had discovered that much at Court. Ã¢â¬Å"If we can still get to them through that, then what does it say? It means no one is safe. It creates fear, and fear makes people do foolish things. It makes them easier prey.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's horrible.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Prey or-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, yeah, I know. Prey or predator.Ã¢â¬ His eyes narrowed slightly, apparently not liking the interruption. He let it go. Ã¢â¬Å"There's also a benefit to unraveling Moroi leadership. That creates instability, too.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Or maybe they'd be better off with a change of leadership,Ã¢â¬ I said. He gave me another odd look, and I was a bit startled myself. There I was, thinking like Victor Dashkov again. I realized I should just be quiet. I wasn't behaving like my usual scattered and high self. Ã¢â¬Å"What's the rest?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The restÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ A smile curved up his lips. Ã¢â¬Å"The rest is prestige. We do it for the glory of it. For the reputation it gives us and the satisfaction of knowing we're responsible for destroying that which others haven't been able to destroy for centuries.Ã¢â¬ Simple Strigoi nature. Malice, hunting, and death. There didn't need to be any other reasons. Dimitri's gaze moved past me to my bedside table. It was where I took off all my jewelry at night and laid it out. All his gifts were there, glittering like some pirate's treasure. Reaching over me, he lifted up the nazar on its chain. Ã¢â¬Å"You still have this.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yup. Not as pretty as your stuff, though.Ã¢â¬ Seeing the blue eye reminded me of my mother. I hadn't thought about her in a very long time. Back in Baia, I'd grown to see Olena as a secondary mother, but nowÃ¢â¬ ¦ now I kind of wished for my own. Janine Hathaway might not cook and clean, but she was smart and competent. And in some ways, I realized with a start, we thought alike. My traits had come from her, and I knew with certainty that in this situation, she wouldn't have stopped planning escape. Ã¢â¬Å"This I haven't seen before,Ã¢â¬ Dimitri said. He'd set the nazar back down and picked up the plain silver ring Mark had given me. I hadn't worn it since I was last in the Belikov house and had set it on the table next to the nazar. Ã¢â¬Å"I got it while I was-Ã¢â¬ I stopped, realizing I hadn't ever brought up my travels before Novosibirsk. Ã¢â¬Å"While you were what?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"While I was in your hometown. In Baia.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri was playing with the ring, moving it from fingertip to fingertip, but he paused and glanced over at me when I said the name. Ã¢â¬Å"You were there?Ã¢â¬ Strangely, we hadn't talked much about that. I'd mentioned Novosibirsk a few times, but that was it. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought that's where you'd be,Ã¢â¬ I explained. Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't know that Strigoi did their hunting in cities here. I stayed with your family.Ã¢â¬ His eyes returned to the ring. He continued playing with it, twirling it and rolling it around. Ã¢â¬Å"And?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"AndÃ¢â¬ ¦ they were nice. I liked them. I hung out with Viktoria a lot.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why wasn't she at school?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It was Easter.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ah, right. How was she?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fine,Ã¢â¬ I said quickly. I couldn't bring myself to tell him about that last night with her and Rolan. Ã¢â¬Å"Karolina's good too. She reminds me of you. She really laid into some dhampir guys who were causing trouble.Ã¢â¬ He smiled again, and it wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ nice. I mean, the fangs still made it creepy, but it didn't have that sinister edge I'd come to expect. There was fondness in his face, true affection that startled me. Ã¢â¬Å"I can see Karolina doing that. Did she have her baby yet?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"YeahÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I was still a little thrown off by that smile. Ã¢â¬Å"It was a girl. Zoya.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Zoya,Ã¢â¬ he repeated, still not looking at me. Ã¢â¬Å"Not a bad name. How was Sonya?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay. I didn't see too much of her. She's a little touchyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Viktoria says it's because of the pregnancy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sonya's pregnant too?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh. Yeah. Six months, I think.Ã¢â¬ His smile dimmed a little bit, and he almost seemed concerned. Ã¢â¬Å"I suppose it had to happen sooner or later. Her decisions aren't always as wise as Karolina's. Karolina's children were by choiceÃ¢â¬ ¦ I'm guessing Sonya's was a surprise.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. I kind of got that feeling too.Ã¢â¬ He ticked off the rest of his family members. Ã¢â¬Å"My mother and grandmother?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Er, fine. Both of them.Ã¢â¬ This conversation was becoming increasingly strange. Not only was it the first normal one we'd had since I'd arrived, it was also the first time he'd really seemed interested in anything that wasn't Strigoi related or that didn't involve kissing and biting, aside from some reminiscing about our early fights together-and the teasing reminders of sex in the cabin. Ã¢â¬Å"Your grandmother scared me a little.Ã¢â¬ He laughed, and I flinched. It was so, so close to his old laugh. Closer than I'd ever imagined it could be. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, she does that to people.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And she pretended not to speak English.Ã¢â¬ That was a pretty small detail in the grand scheme of things, but it still kind of pissed me off. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, she does that too.Ã¢â¬ He continued smiling, voice fond. Ã¢â¬Å"Do they all still live together? In that same house?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yup. I saw the books you told me about. The pretty ones-but I couldn't read them.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's where I first got into American westerns.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Man, I loved making fun of you over those.Ã¢â¬ He chuckled. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, between that, your stereotypes about Eastern European music, and the whole ?Ã ®comrade' thing, you had plenty of material.Ã¢â¬ I laughed too. Ã¢â¬Å"?Ã ®Comrade' and the music were kind of out of line.Ã¢â¬ I'd almost forgotten about my old nickname for him. It didn't fit anymore. Ã¢â¬Å"But you brought the cowboy thing on yourself, between the leather duster and-Ã¢â¬ I stopped. I'd started to mention his duty to help those in need, but that was hardly the case anymore. He didn't notice my lapse. Ã¢â¬Å"And then you left them and came to Novosibirsk?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. I came with those dhampirs I was hunting withÃ¢â¬ ¦ those other unpromised ones. I almost didn't, though. Your family wanted me to stay. I thought about doing it.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri held the ring up to the light, face shadowed with thought. He sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"You probably should have.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They're good people.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They are,Ã¢â¬ he said softly. Ã¢â¬Å"You might have been happy there.Ã¢â¬ Reaching over, he set the ring back on the table and then turned to me, bringing our mouths together. It was the softest, sweetest kiss he'd given me as a Strigoi, and my already considerable shock increased. The gentleness was fleeting, though, and a few seconds later, our kissing returned to what it usually was, forceful and hungry. I had a feeling he was hungry for more than just kissing, too, despite having fed recently. Pushing aside my confusion over howÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, normal and kind he'd seemed while talking about his family, I tried to figure out how I was going to dodge more biting without raising suspicion. My body was still weak and wanting it, but in my head, I felt more like myself than I had in ages. Dimitri pulled up from the kiss, and I blurted out the first thing that came to mind before he could do anything else. Ã¢â¬Å"What's it like?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What's what like?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Kissing.Ã¢â¬ He frowned. Score one for me. I'd momentarily baffled an undead creature of the night. Sydney would be proud. Ã¢â¬Å"What do you mean?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You said being awakened enhances all the senses. Is kissing different then?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ah.Ã¢â¬ Understanding flashed over his features. Ã¢â¬Å"It is, kind of. My sense of smell is stronger than it used to be, so your scent comes through much more intenselyÃ¢â¬ ¦ your sweat, the shampoo in your hairÃ¢â¬ ¦ it's beyond what you can imagine. Intoxicating. And of course, sharper taste and touch make this better.Ã¢â¬ He leaned down and kissed me again, and something about his description made my insides queasy-in a good way. That wasn't supposed to happen. My hope was to distract him-not myself. Ã¢â¬Å"When we were outside the other night, the flowers were really strong. If they're strong to me, are they overwhelming to you? I mean, do the scents get to be too much?Ã¢â¬ And so it began. I bombarded him with as many questions as I could, asking him about all aspects of Strigoi life. I wanted to know what it was like, how he feltÃ¢â¬ ¦ I asked everything with curiosity and enthusiasm, biting my lip and turning thoughtful at all the right places. I could see his interest grow as I spoke, though his attitude was brisk and efficient-in no way resembling our earlier affectionate conversation. He was hoping that I was finally on the verge of agreeing to turn. As the questioning continued, so also did my outward signs of fatigue. I yawned a lot, lost my train of thought a lot. Finally, I rubbed my eyes with my hands and yawned again. Ã¢â¬Å"There's so much I didn't knowÃ¢â¬ ¦ still don't knowÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I told you it was amazing.Ã¢â¬ Honestly, some of it was. Most of it was creepy as hell, but if you got over the whole undead and evil thing, there were definitely some perks to being Strigoi. Ã¢â¬Å"I have more questions,Ã¢â¬ I murmured. I closed my eyes and sighed, then opened them as though forcing myself to stay awake. Ã¢â¬Å"ButÃ¢â¬ ¦ I'm so tiredÃ¢â¬ ¦ I still don't feel good. You don't think I have a concussion, do I?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. And once you're awakened, it won't matter anyway.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But not until you answer the rest of my questions.Ã¢â¬ The words were muffled in a yawn, but he understood. It took him a while to respond. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay. Not until then. But time is running out. I told you that before.Ã¢â¬ I let my lids drift closed then. Ã¢â¬Å"But it's not the second day yetÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ he said quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"Not yet.Ã¢â¬ I lay there, steadying my breathing as much as I could. Would my act work? It was highly possible he would still drink from me even if he thought I was asleep. I was taking a gamble here. One bite, and all my work to fight the withdrawal would be wasted. I'd reset to how I'd been. As it was, I had no clue how I was going to dodge a bite next timeÃ¢â¬ ¦ but then, I didn't think there'd be a next time. I'd be a Strigoi by then. Dimitri lay beside me for a few more minutes, and then I felt him move. Inside, I braced myself. Damn. Here it came. The bite. I'd been certain that our kissing was part of the allure of him drinking from me and that if I just fell asleep, the allure would be gone. Apparently not. All my pretending was for nothing. It was all over. But it wasn't. He got up and left. When I heard the door close, I almost thought it was a scam. I thought for sure he was trying to fake me out and still actually stood in the room. Yet when I felt the Strigoi nausea fade, I realized the truth. He really had left me, thinking I needed to sleep. My act had been convincing. I immediately sat up, turning a few different things over in my mind. In that last bit of his visit, he'd seemedÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, he'd reminded me more than ever of the old Dimitri. Sure, he'd still been Strigoi through and through, but there'd been something else. A bit of warmth to his laugh. Sincere interest and affection upon hearing about his family. Had that been it? Had hearing news of his family triggered some piece of his soul buried within the monster? I confess, I felt a little jealous at the thought that they might have wrought the change in him that I couldn't. But he'd still had that same warmth in talking about us, just a littleÃ¢â¬ ¦ No, no. I had to stop this. There was no change. No reversal of his state. It was wishful thinking, and the more I regained my old self, the more I realized the truth of the situation. Dimitri's actions had made me recall something. I'd completely forgotten about Oksana's ring. I picked it up from the table and slipped it on my finger. I felt no noticeable change, but if the healing magic was still in it, it might help me. It could expedite my body and mind healing from the withdrawal. If any of Lissa's darkness was bleeding into me, the ring could help dampen that, too. I sighed. No matter how often I told myself I was free of her, I never would be. She was my best friend. We were connected in a way that few could understand. The denial I'd been living under lifted. I regretted my actions with Adrian now. He'd come to me for help, and I'd thrown his kindness back in his face. Now I was bereft of communication with the outside world. And thinking of Lissa reminded me again of what had happened earlier when I'd been in her mind. What had pushed me out? I hesitated, pondering my course of action. Lissa was far away and possibly in trouble. Dimitri and the other Strigoi were here. ButÃ¢â¬ ¦ I couldn't walk away quite yet. I had to take one more look at her, just a quick oneÃ¢â¬ ¦ I found her in an unexpected place. She was with Deirdre, a counselor on campus. Lissa had been seeing a counselor ever since spirit had begun manifesting, but it had been someone else. Expanding my senses to Lissa's thoughts, I read the story: Her counselor had left shortly after the school's attack. Lissa had been reassigned to Deirdre-who had once counseled me when everyone thought I was going crazy over Mason's death. Deirdre was a very polished-looking Moroi, always meticulously dressed with her blond hair styled to perfection. She didn't look much older than us, and with me, her counseling method had resembled a police interrogation. With Lissa, she was more gentle. It figured. Ã¢â¬Å"Lissa, we're a little worried about you. Normally, you would have been suspended. I actually stopped that from happening. I keep feeling like there's something going on that you aren't telling me. Some other issue.Ã¢â¬ Lissa suspended? I again reached in to read the situation and found it. Last night, Lissa and others had been busted for breaking into the library of all places and having an impromptu party complete with alcohol and destruction to some of the property. Good God. My best friend needed to join AA. Lissa's arms were crossed, her demeanor almost combative. Ã¢â¬Å"There's no issue. We were just trying to have fun. I'm sorry for the damage. If you want to suspend me, go ahead.Ã¢â¬ Deirdre shook her head. Ã¢â¬Å"That's not my decision. My concern is the why here. I know you used to suffer from depression and other problems because of your, ah, magic. But this feels more like some kind of rebellion.Ã¢â¬ Rebellion? Oh, it was more than that. Since their fight, Lissa had been unable to find Christian, and it was killing her. She couldn't handle downtime now. All she thought about was him-or me. Partying and risk taking were the only things that could distract her from us. Ã¢â¬Å"Students do this stuff all the time,Ã¢â¬ argued Lissa. Ã¢â¬Å"Why is it a big deal for me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, because you put yourself in danger. After the library, you were on the verge of breaking into the pool. Swimming while intoxicated is definite cause for alarm.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nobody drowned. Even if someone had started to, I'm sure that between all of us, we could have pulled them out.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's just alarming, considering some of the self-destructive behaviors you once exhibited, like the cuttingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ So it went for the next hour, and Lissa did as good a job as I used to in dodging Deirdre's questions. When the session ended, Deirdre said she wasn't going to recommend disciplinary action. She wanted Lissa back for more counseling. Lissa would have actually preferred detention or cleaning boards. As she stalked furiously across campus, she spotted Christian going in the opposite direction. Hope lit the blackness of her mind like sunshine. Ã¢â¬Å"Christian!Ã¢â¬ she yelled, running up to him. He stopped, giving her a wary look. Ã¢â¬Å"What do you want?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What do you mean what do I want?Ã¢â¬ She wanted to throw herself in his arms and have him tell her everything would be okay. She was upset and overwhelmed and filled with darknessÃ¢â¬ ¦ but there was a piece of vulnerability there that desperately needed him. Ã¢â¬Å"I haven't been able to find you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I've just beenÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ His face darkened. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. Thinking. Besides, from what I hear, you haven't been too bored.Ã¢â¬ No surprise everyone knew about last night's fiasco. That kind of thing spread like wildfire thanks to the Academy's gossip mill. Ã¢â¬Å"It was nothing,Ã¢â¬ she said. The way he regarded her made her heart ache. Ã¢â¬Å"That's the thing,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Everything's nothing lately. All your partying. Making out with other guys. Lying.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I haven't been lying!Ã¢â¬ she exclaimed. Ã¢â¬Å"And when are you going to get over Aaron?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You aren't telling me the truth. It's the same thing.Ã¢â¬ It was an echo of Jill's sentiment. Lissa barely knew her and was really starting to hate her. Ã¢â¬Å"I just can't handle this. I can't be a part of you going back to your days of being a royal girl doing crazy stunts with your other royal friends.Ã¢â¬ Here's the thing. If Lissa had elaborated on her feelings more, on just how much her guilt and depression were eating her up and making her spin out of controlÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, I think Christian would have been there for her in an instant. Despite his cynical exterior, he had a good heart-and Lissa owned most of it. Or used to. Now all he could see was her being silly and shallow and returning to a lifestyle he despised. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not!Ã¢â¬ she exclaimed. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm justÃ¢â¬ ¦ I don't know. It just feels good to sort of let loose.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I can't do it,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"I can't be with you if that's your life now.Ã¢â¬ Her eyes went wide. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you breaking up with me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'mÃ¢â¬ ¦ I don't know. Yeah, I guess.Ã¢â¬ Lissa was so consumed by the shock and horror of this that she didn't really see Christian the way I did, didn't see the agony in his eyes. It destroyed him to have to do this. He was hurting too, and all he saw was the girl he loved changing and becoming someone he couldn't be with. Ã¢â¬Å"Things aren't the way they used to be.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You can't do that,Ã¢â¬ she cried. She didn't see his pain. She saw him as being cruel and unfair. Ã¢â¬Å"We need to talk about this-figure it out-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"The time for talking's past,Ã¢â¬ he argued. Ã¢â¬Å"You should have been ready to talk sooner-not now, not when things suddenly aren't going your way.Ã¢â¬ Lissa didn't know whether she wanted to scream or cry. She just knew she couldn't lose Christian-not after losing me, too. If she lost both of us, there was nothing left for her in the world. Ã¢â¬Å"Please, don't do this,Ã¢â¬ she begged. Ã¢â¬Å"I can change.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry,Ã¢â¬ he snapped. Ã¢â¬Å"I just don't see any evidence of that.Ã¢â¬ He turned and abruptly walked away. To her, his departure was harsh and cold. But again, I'd seen the anguish in his eyes. I think he left because he knew if he stayed, he wasn't going to be able to go through with this decision-this decision that hurt but that he felt was right. Lissa started to go after him when a hand suddenly pulled her back. She turned and saw Avery and Adrian standing there. From the looks on their faces, they'd overheard everything. Ã¢â¬Å"Let him go,Ã¢â¬ said Adrian gravely. He'd been the one to grab her. He dropped his hand and laced his fingers through Avery's. Ã¢â¬Å"Going after him now's just going to make it worse. Give him his space.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He can't do this,Ã¢â¬ said Lissa. Ã¢â¬Å"He can't do this to me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He's upset,Ã¢â¬ said Avery, her concern mirroring Adrian's. Ã¢â¬Å"He isn't thinking straight. Wait for him to cool off, and he'll come around.Ã¢â¬ Lissa stared off after Christian's retreating figure, her heart breaking. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. I don't know if he will. Oh God. I can't lose him.Ã¢â¬ My own heart broke. I wanted so badly to go to her, to comfort her and be there for her. She felt so alone, and I felt horrible for leaving her. Something had pushed her into this downward spiral, and I should have been there to help her out of it. That was what best friends did. I needed to be there. Lissa turned back and looked at Avery. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm so confusedÃ¢â¬ ¦ I don't know what to do.Ã¢â¬ Avery met her eyes, but when she didÃ¢â¬ ¦ the strangest thing happened. Avery wasn't looking at her. She was looking at me. Oh jeez. Not you again. The voice rang in my head, and snap! I was out of Lissa. There it was, the mental shove, the brush of my mind and waves of hot and cold. I stared around my room, shocked at how abrupt the transition had been. Yet I'd learned something. I knew then that Lissa hadn't been the one to shove me out before or now. Lissa had been too distracted and too distraught. The voice? That hadn't been hers either. And then, I finally remembered where I'd felt that brushing touch in my head. Oksana. It was the same sensation I'd experienced when she had reached out to my mind, trying to get a feel for my moods and intentions, an action that both she and Mark admitted was invasive and wrong if you weren't bonded to someone. Carefully, I replayed what had just happened with Lissa. Once again, I saw those last few moments. Blue-gray eyes staring at me-me, not Lissa. Lissa hadn't pushed me out of her head. Avery had.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The need to start buying goods created corporate expansion, accelerated mass production and this marked the time of important technological and economic advancement. Due to this feeling of liberation after the war, women were now able to go back to heir lives instead of serving in the workforce. Most left their Jobs for returning servicemen to take over and could now look forward to a new start. Although celebrations never reached the height of what it was in the sass, women still wanted to flaunt their newfound sense of freedom.Gone were the days of rationing, of constantly living in fear of invasion, of utilitarian formality. Women were more than happy to go back to being homemakers, looking perfectly groomed, with their coiffed hair and always so immaculate in the way they dressed. This is where the master' comes into the picture. CrispÃ ¶bal Balancing took hold of this need for a new change and revolutionized the silhouette of women by creating the unstructured waist. He was awa re of his destiny at an early age and preferred to be at the side of his mother, who was a talented seamstress in the village of Guitar.His first ever patronage came from the Marques De Case Tortes who was quick to notice young Sacristan's interest in fashion. When she presented him with the meaner and opportunity to duplicate a designer suit of hers, he passed with flying colors ND the Marques gave him the opportunity of apprenticeship with a tailor, which he took very seriously. (Myra Walker, 2006, peg. 13) His balloon dresses, peasant and sailor blouses, and later on, the tunics, sack dresses, and turned-down tweed, freed the neck and wrists to highlight Jewelry and hand movement. Pierre Arizona-CLCÃ ©mental, 2011, peg. 37) While by day, his classic simplicity went unnoticed by the multitudes, but by night, his stunning evening gowns and cocktail dresses were a sight to behold as they ignited the senses with their array of color and textured fabric. Figure 1 . Mantle Coat in gre y wool, with draped sleeves and open at the sides, Vogue, pans, sass Figure 2. Evening dress in flocked shantung in blue and black, 1957. Balancing was considered a master of illusion and his designs concealed the Ã¢â¬Ëdefects' of the women who wore them.Through them, he altered the silhouette of a women's body to flatter his client's less than perfect bodies, often defying established conventions. Ã¢â¬Å"A woman has no need to be perfect or even beautiful to wear my dresses, the dress will do that for her. Ã¢â¬ (Cole, Shawn, 2002, peg. 2) Balancing originally designed the set-back or standards collar for Carmela Snow, the then editor-in-chief of Harpers Bazaar, who as she put it, Ã¢â¬Å"had no neckÃ¢â¬ . The collar bestowed upon a woman an appearance of a long swan-like neck.Once again, Balancing had managed to disguise a less than perfect body. He also came up with the shortened seven-eights sleeves that gave an appearance of height that his clients did not often possess. H is creations were so flattering that women often ordered more than one so that they could wear them while one was in the wash or so they could keep one at each of their houses. As Billingsgate's apparel did not require any undergarment to be worn to shape the body, they were reputed for comfort and it suited the post-war era of women.His manipulation of the waist especially, contributed to Ã¢â¬Å"What is considered to be his most important contribution to the world of fashion: a new silhouette for women. Ã¢â¬ (Arizona-CLCÃ ©mental, 2011, peg. 11) Another great technological advancement that has and still holds a colossal social impact in the world up till this day was Television (TV). This vehicle, which carried the dead of a new generation and attitude, influenced the masses more eloquently than any other media element. During the sass, TV became the commanding mass media as more families brought it into their homes.The amount of hours that people glued themselves to the TV inc reased, a trend, which has not changed since that time. What was shown on TV became accepted as reality and was considered a norm. And designers, businessmen and film producers were about to take advantage of that. Audrey Hepburn was one of the rising stars in Hollywood during the sass and stood UT quite clearly against the likes of Marilyn Monroe and Jane Russell. When Hubert De Given met her on the set of Sabina in 1954, he was disappointed at first owing to the fact he was supposed to receive another Hepburn.But later on, as time went by, he soon realized this Hepburn had a perfect understanding of her own face and figure, and already possessed a clear sense of what fashion would suit her best. (Francoise Mohr, 1998, peg. 82) The style of T-shirts and boat-neck dresses of the period ended up as a style so popular that it became know as Ã¢â¬ËdÃ ©collectÃ © Sabina'. Given had now discovered he was in the presence of an authentic personality and found someone who would celebrate a new era in the history of fashion.They remained close throughout her entire lifetime, and eventually became the sole couturier of her entire chiffonier, in life and as well as on screen. Figure 3. Audrey Hepburn in Sabina, 1954. When Hepburn appeared in the early morning scene (which has now become famous) from Breakfast at Tiffany in the elegant little black dress, white gloves and beehive hairdo, it set Off media frenzy and she became synonymous with the Given alienation. Not forgetting the 1957 film Funny face in which Audrey Hepburn wears a black boat neck, cap sleeve dress, which catapulted her even more so, as the fashion icon of that era.Hubert De Given had finally found his muse, who was as much of a perfectionist as he was and be it whether she wore Scares or was divinely attired in her evening gowns crafted by Given, she lived and breathed the profile of Given. She served as the honorary president at the ceremony with which Given was presented the California Lifetime Ac hievement in the Arts Award in 1981 and also resided over an exhibition that was dedicated to the couturier at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York the following year in May.Given stated that during his four decades of working with Audrey Hepburn, he had never needed to change the form he had first made for her in 1954. In 1957, the actress became cited as one of the ten most fascinating women in the world by the New York Dress Institute and for decades after, up till this age, she is still considered a fashion icon. In conclusion, a time of peace and change was upon America in the sass.It was the eight time for evolution into the next era, no more material coupons, no more restrictions, it was time to celebrate as Balancing had done with his waist less tunics and peasant blouses, this had great influence in changing the way women dressed and how people viewed their silhouettes. Given, on the other hand, due to the influence of television and with the help of Audrey Hepbu rn, had indeed made a name for himself, so that elegance and simplicity became synonymous with his name. (1351 words) References Bradley, Becky . Ã¢â¬Å"1950-1959. Ã¢â¬ American Cultural History.
Friday, November 8, 2019
English Practice Task Essay English Practice Task Essay English Practice Question Task Chosen Question: 1 - Morality, Friendship, Social Acceptance Hypothesis: In the novel, Jasper Jones, by Craig Silvey, the events that occur, such as LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s death, allow Charlie to develop his understanding of Morality within the town Corrigan, during which his friendships that develop open his eyes to CorriganÃ¢â¬â¢s, as well as his own, social acceptance of others. Focus Questions: 1. How does Charlie develop in Maturity and Morality in term of the events of LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s death? 2. How does Charlie develop his friendships during the story and in accordance to the events that occur? 3. How does Charlie open his eyes in regards to his own view, and that of CorriganÃ¢â¬â¢s social acceptance to others? 4. What does Charlie learn from the events that have occurred and how have they changed his view on the town of Corrigan? Introduction: Jasper Jones, is a compelling and engaging story about the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s, Charlie Bucktin, experiences during the summer of 1965. It follows Charlie, his newly made friends and the shocking truth Charlie discovers, and his journey of morality, social acceptance and friendship. In the novel, Jasper Jones, by Craig Silvey, the events that occur, such as LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s death, allow Charlie to develop his understanding of Morality within the town Corrigan, during which his friendships that develop open his eyes to CorriganÃ¢â¬â¢s, as well as his own, social acceptance of others. First Body Paragraph: In Jasper Jones, by Craig Silvey, CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s conscience, and his maturity of making moral decisions, is both troubled and challenged when he learns about Jasper JonesÃ¢â¬â¢s horrible discovery of the death of Laura Wishart. Charlie is thirteen years old, with an inquisitive mind he gets from reading, which often means he is analysing his actions and thoughts thoroughly. This is first introduced in the book during the opening chapter when Charlie first learns of Laura WhishartÃ¢â¬â¢s death, he finds out and says, Ã¢â¬Å"We go to the Police! ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what we do. We go to the
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
No Se Essays No Se Essay No Se Essay Explain all your answers using the Problem-Solving Technique 1. A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0. 07 m3 of nitrogen at 130 kPa and 120oC. The nitrogen is now expanded polytropically to a state of 100 kPa and 100oC. Determine the boundary work during this process. 2. A piston-cylinder device with a set of stops initially contains 0. 3 kg of steam at 1. 0 MPa and 400oC. The location of the stops corresponds to 60 percent of the initial volume. Now the steam is cooled. Determine the compression work if the final state is (a) 1. Mpa and 250 oC and (b) 500 kPa. (c) Also determine the temperature at the final state in part (b) 3. A frictionless piston-cylinder device initially contains 200L of saturated liquid refrigerant-134a. The piston is free to move, and its mass is such that it maintains a pressure of 900 kPa on the refrigerant. The refrigerant is now heated until its temperature rises to 70oC. Calculate the work done during this process. 4. A mass of 2. 4 kg of air at 1 50 kPa and 12oC is contained in a gas-tight, frictionless piston-cylinder device. The air is now compressed to a final pressure of 600 kPa. During the process, heat is transferred from the air such that the temperature inside the cylinder remains constant. Calculate the work input during this process. 5. Saturate water vapor at 200oC is isothermally condensed to a saturated liquid in a piston-cylinder device. Calculate the heat transfer and the work done during this process in kJ/kg. 6. An insulated piston-cylinder device contains 5 L of saturated liquid water at a constant pressure of 175 kPa. Water is stirred by a paddle wheel while a current of 8 A flows for 45 min through a resistor placed in the water. In one-half of the liquid is evaporated during this constant-pressure process and the paddle-wheel work amounts to 400 kJ, determine the voltage of the source. Also, show the process on a P-v diagram with respect to the saturation lines. 7. 1-kg of oxygen is heated from 25oC to 300oC. Determine the amount of heat transferred required when this is done during a (a) constant-volume process and (b) isobaric process.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Landfill Gas - Essay Example One hazard of the production of LFG, particularly methane, is the possibility of the occurrence of gas explosion in areas where there is high concentration (ASTDR, 2001). With this kind of hazard and possible health risks of those exposed to LFG, methane has been considered to be captured and recycled for more beneficial purposes (EPA, 2014). One of the most productive uses of methane is its collection in landfills and processed to be converted to energy, like what is done in some areas of California. Removal of water from LFG makes it allowable for use in reciprocating engines. Further clean-up processes make it usable in manufacturing industries and gas turbines. Gas recovery facilities in California have produced approximately 246 megawatts of electricity since 1995. This amount of electricity came from the recycling of LFG, mostly methane (California Energy Commission, n.d.). Landfill gases have initially posed harm to humans and the environment, but with the continuous study of the processes involved in the production of landfill gases, the government has taken part in promoting its collection. The recycling of methane from landfills is the most productive because it has provided a source of renewable electricity. Through this processes and collection facilities, lower emissions of methane can escape into the atmosphere. The benefit that humans get from methane through conversion to electricity also benefits the environment by minimizing the greenhouse gas that causes global
Friday, November 1, 2019
In the UK, ethical businesses are not as successful as less ethical businesses. Discuss - Essay Example The reason for lesser success among ethical businesses in the market is that there is a lack of awareness among potential customers concerning origins of most products. This ignorance has made it extremely difficult for ethical businesses to not only promote themselves, but also to achieve the sales margins that less ethical businesses achieve (Anand and Rosen, 2008). Furthermore, the most popular brands available for customers tend to be those that are owned by less ethical companies and this situation makes it harder for ethical businesses to compete with them at the same level. Therefore, while most ethical businesses spend much money in advertising their products, less ethical ones, which have been in the market longer, do not need to spend as much since they have established firm customer bases. Further, less ethical businesses take advantage of all favourable market conditions available to ensure that they reduce their costs of production as well as distribution and this is done in such a way that they do not necessarily have to observe ethical values. They take advantage of cheaper labour, greater means of production as well as favourable government policies to ensure that their products are not only cheaper, but also abundant in the market. This is an aspect of current business environment, which many ethical businesses cannot compete with because they are based on achieving ethical observances such as fairer prices for producers as well as fair wages for those who provide labour. In the end, it is difficult for these companies to keep their prices low because they have to recover their costs; a major disadvantage when compared to less ethical companies. In recent years, less ethical businesses have had an edge over ethical businesses based on their having been firmly established in the market for much longer than their counterparts have. This has made it quite difficult for ethical businesses